All psychotic disorders lead the person suffering from them to lose contact with reality. This is why hallucinations or delusions will be the most characteristic symptoms of any psychotic disorder. But are delusions and hallucinations exactly the same?
In the first place, delusions are anomalous beliefs in the sense that their content is strange, improbable or absurd and not shared by the other members of the social group of reference, despite which they are held with a serious conviction. That is, there is an extreme distortion of what has actually happened. For example, a person hears background noise when talking on the phone and thinks they have been tapped because they are being spied on.
Second, the hallucinations are false perceptions, ie hear something, see or feel something that does not really exist. This is something that our mind distorts and invents, because that person, object or perceived fact does not really exist. For example, a person alone in his home hears voices saying his name without any real noise.
When I believed that everything was true, I was aware that that reality was only seen by me
With this brief introduction on psychotic disorders, we are going to address the most well-known and common, which introduce delusions and hallucinations among their most common symptoms.
Schizophrenia causes the person suffering from it to have hallucinations and strange thoughts that affect their behavior. Currently there is still no cure, although it is true that you can control and lead a normal life through therapeutic interventions and antipsychotic medication.
But, schizophrenia does not present itself in only one way. This is why different types can be differentiated according to the symptoms they present:
- Paranoid schizophrenia : delusions or hallucinations, especially auditory, predominate.
- Hebephrenic schizophrenia : also known as disorganized, where disorganized or strange language and behavior predominate and with very clear emotional alterations.
- Catatonic schizophrenia : the person may have excessive motor activity or immobility.
- Undifferentiated schizophrenia : it includes all the above symptoms and none of them stands out enough to be classified within any subtype.
- Residual schizophrenia: Residual schizophrenia is devoid of delusions or hallucinations or these are very mild. It is characterized by the presence of residual and negative symptoms such as lack of emotional response, apathy or poor language.
Schizophrenia is one of the most serious illnesses and one that many people suffer from (at least 1% of the population). To treat it, it is necessary to use drugs and psychotherapy that will allow the person who suffers it to enjoy life. Only then can new outbreaks be avoided.
The paranoia is also known as “delusional disorder” and is characterized in that the person has in mind one or several ideas that you think are true. An example would be to think that everyone is watching you and that they have a macabre plan that affects you.
In this case, there are also some types of delusional disorders that have a lot to do with the nature of the delusion. Here are some of them:
- Persecutory Delusional Disorder – The person believes that they are continually being persecuted.
- Erotic delusional disorder : the person believes that another person is in love with them, even if they do not even know of their existence.
- Hypochondriacal delusional disorder : The person believes that they are generally seriously ill.
- Delusional passion disorder : the person suspects that his partner is lying to him or has something to hide. This can generate violence within the couple.
People who suffer from this delusional disorder are not aware of it, since everything they think they see for them is true. This is why it is so difficult to fix the problem and “control” it, in some way.